№3-4 2022
Raw materials. Metallurgy
Titanium dioxide technology from slag derived from titanomagnetite
L.G. Gerasimova, A.G. Artemenkov, A.I. Nikolaev, E.S. Shchukina
Titanium slag is a synthetic raw material for producing titanium dioxide and titanium sponge. The amount of titanium in slag varies from 65 to 95% and depends on the initial titanium-containing raw material and on the technology of its metallurgical processing. The results of studies on the processing of titanomagnetite of apatite-nepheline ore deposits are presented and the possibility of their modeling for titanomagnetite accompanied by perovskite ores is analyzed.
Keywords: titanomagnetite, titanium slag, reduction smelting, carbothermy, decomposition, thermohydrolysis.

Materials science
Influence of hardening heat treatment on the hardness of vt6 titanium alloy
S.V. Skvortsova, A.A. Orlov, V.S. Spektor, A.V. Zairov, A.A. Lidzhiev
The paper describes the study of the effect of hardening heat treatment on the hardness of titanium alloy VT6. The influence of the volume fraction of the α-phase on the hardness of samples from the VT6 alloy was studied depending on the heating temperature for hardening. Graphs of the change in the hardness of samples from the VT6 alloy after aging are plotted depending on the hardness of the samples in the quenched state.
Keywords: titanium alloy, hardening heat treatment, hardness, α-phase volume fraction.

Study of the effect of heat treatment on structure and properties of intermetallic titanium alloy
M.S. Eremkina, I.R. Aslanyan
This work is devoted to the study of the effect of heat treatment on TiAl-based intermetallic alloys. The mechanical properties of the alloy (microhardness and tensile strength) were studied. The effect of heat treatment on the structure and properties of an intermetallic alloy based on titanium has been studied.
Keywords: titanium intermetallic compound, heat treatment, microhardness, strength.

Prediction of strength properties of titanium alloys at operating temperatures depending on the chemical composition
Yu.B. Egorova, L.V. Davidenko, I.M. Mamonov
The results of studies of the statistical dependences of the strength properties of titanium alloy sheets and rods (after standard annealing) on the aluminum and molybdenum equivalents of alloying elements and impurities at temperatures of 20–600°C. The comparison of the operating temperature of titanium alloys depending on their chemical composition is carried out. Based on the conducted studies, models are substantiated for estimating typical values of the ultimate strength of bars and sheets depending on the equivalents at different test temperatures. Strength diagrams are constructed in the coordinates «aluminum equivalent – molybdenum equivalent – ultimate strength», which allow predicting the ultimate strength of alloys at different operating temperatures.
Keywords: titanium alloys, aluminum and molybdenum equivalents, strength properties, test temperature, statistical studies, prediction of properties.

Manufacturing technologies
Study of the structure of porous titanium coatings formed on hip joint endoprostheses acetabular cups produced by various technologies
O.N. Gvozdeva, G.V. Gurtovaya, N.V. Ruchina, M.D. Tevs
In this work, titanium porous coatings formed by microsphere sintering, wire diffusion welding, and direct laser powder deposition are studied. The coatings were compared in terms of open volumetric porosity, development and the state of the “coating-base” contact boundary, depending on the technology of their application. It has been established that coatings obtained by sintering and diffusion welding have an open porosity of 40–50% and are capable of providing good integration into bone structures. It is noted that a single-layer porous coating formed by direct laser powder deposition is inferior to them in terms of quality, but has the potential for improvement.
Keywords: titanium alloy, bulk porosity, adhesive strength, porous coating, contact boundary, structure.

Technical aspects of degassing of metal powders at a new thermal vacuum installation
S.A. Osipov, S.Yu. Kuznetsov, A.A. Alexandrov, A.V. Kulnev, A.V. Alexandrov
The paper presents the results of studies on the effectiveness of a tubeless installation for thermal vacuum degassing of granules and filling granules into capsules with vibration compaction and sealing of capsules.
Keywords: metal granules, powder, thermal vacuum degassing of granules, filling of granules into capsules, vibration sealing, capsule sealing.

Application of laser technologies in the manufacture of titanium alloy structures
A.G. Sukhov, S.M. Shanchurov
The technology of manufacturing structures from titanium alloys using laser cutting and welding is considered. The developed technologies and equipment have found wide application both in the manufacture of high-precision large-sized structures for special purposes and in other industries.
Keywords: titanium alloys, laser cutting, laser welding, welded metal constructions.

Processing technologies
The research of the influence of heat treatment on the structure and adhesion strength of porous titanium coatings on implantable medical devices
V.S. Spektor, A.E. Ivanov, A.A. Skoblin, A.P. Neiman, K. Rumyantsev
The effect of vacuum annealing on the structure and properties of porous coatings made of VT1-0 alloy applied to the cup of a hip joint endoprosthesis made of VT6 alloy by different methods has been studied. The proportion of physico-chemical contact at the "coating–base" interface and the adhesive strength of coatings are determined.
Keywords: titanium alloys, porous coating, additive technologies, heat treatment.

Formation of protective coatings on titanium alloy products by plasma electrolytic treatment
V.K. Shatalov, L.V. Lysenko, A.O. Shtokal, E.V. Rykov
The methods of plasma electrolytic treatment of individual surfaces outside the bath are presented on the example of a transition shaft. These methods allow for the formation of oxide coatings on various surfaces of large parts.
Keywords: oxidation, large-sized structures, electrolyte, titanium alloys.

Application. Quality. Market
Influence of surface modification on the wear resistance of the heads of hip joint endoprostheses made of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V before and after operation in the human body
S.V. Skvortsova, A.A. Orlov, V.S. Spektor, A.V. Neiman, S.M. Sarychev
In this work, the influence of thermal hydrogen treatment and vacuum ion-plasma nitriding on the formation of the volumetric and surface structure of ball heads from the Ti-6Al-4V alloy was studied. It has been established that the formation of a three-dimensional submicrocrystalline structure in the head during thermal hydrogen treatment makes it possible to achieve hardness values of 39–41 units. HRC and surface roughness 0.02 µm. It is shown that the creation of a modified layer containing ε (TiN), δ (Ti2N) titanium nitrides and a solid solution of nitrogen incorporation into α-titanium on the surface of the ball head makes it possible to completely eliminate its wear during friction tests on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. A study of the ball head after operation for 12 years in the human body was carried out. It has been established that the change in the color of the head from slightly golden after nitriding to metallic is due to the formation of an oxynitride nanoscale layer on the surface. It is shown that, in contrast to the oxide film formed on titanium, this film retains not only high corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, but also high wear resistance.
Keywords: titanium alloy, ball head, hip joint endoprosthesis, modified surface, vacuum ion-plasma nitriding, microhardness, structure, torque, coefficient of friction, titanium nitride.

Organization of a system of research and development. Development of R&D systems
A.A. Tsyplenkov, A.A. Borodkin
This article examines the options for the development of R&D systems of large enterprises and corporations in retrospect and suggests a variant of the organization of the R&D system taking into account the requirements of the modern market and the capabilities of enterprises in order to reduce the time of implementation of promising solutions and reduce development costs.
Keywords: R&D system, Innovation management, Technological innovation, Research and development, R&D.

Analysis of prospects and problems of market promotion of additive manufacturing technologies for implantable titanium alloy products
Y.N. Kusakina, L.V. Fedorova
The paper discusses the market prospects for the use of additive technologies in the production of implantable products made of titanium alloys. It is noted that in the presence of a limited, small market, and with a clear competitive advantage associated with the personalization of implantable products manufactured using additive technology, the success of promoting these technologies to the market is determined by the capabilities of russian companies to produce powders and equipment for additive manufacturing, running on Russian software and having parameters and characteristics corresponding to international standards.
Keywords: additive technologies, titanium alloys, market promotion, competitive advantage, selective laser melting, powders of metal materials for additive manufacturing.

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