№3 2017
Formation and development of manufacture of titanium ingots at vsmpo: the new pages of history (1957–1991)
A.O. Ezhov
In the article is analyzed the process of creation and development of the largest in the world melting and casting complex on the production of titanium ingots in Verkhnesaldinskoye metallurgical production association (works № 95, Verhnesaldinskiy metalworking plant (VSMOZ), now - PJSC «VSMPO-AVISMA Corporation») - the fundamentals of high-volume production of semi-finished products for aerospace and shipbuilding of the USSR (1957-1991). During this period there have been qualitative changes in the understanding of the role and place of titanium in the national economy. Its unique properties-strength, lightness, corrosion resistance etc. provided him with wide application. Strong Government support, caused by the great strategic importance of this material and its possibilities, has ensured the continued growth of the volume of products widely conducted research, improved technological processes of obtaining and processing of ingots and semifinished products, created a new advanced equipment. Actively went searching for ways to obtain ingots alternative vacuum arc re-melting (VAR) aimed at reduction of the VAR process without loss of quality. As a result, created towards the end of the 1980s on VSMOZ-VSMPO powerful production base for manufacture of titanium ingots enabled fully to defence and civil industries USSR strategically important construction material with a wider perspective on a standard use. Now VSMPO-AVISMA Corporation is one of the leaders of the world titanium market. The basis of sustainable enterprises is traditionally set for the production of ingots.
Keywords: titanium industry, Ural, vacuum arc re-melting, VSMPO-AVISMA corporation.

Raw materials. Titanium sponge.
Import-substituting pure vanadium pentoxide technology for titanium alloys made of NTMK converter vanadium slag
А. Bornovolokov, B. Khalezov, N. Vatolin, А. Krasheninin
Vanadium pentoxide Vn-0 (V2O5≥ 99,5%) is used in vanadium-containing master alloys for titanium alloys. Vn-0 is not produced in Russia thus all Russian titanium industry needs in V2O5 are met through import. Manganic vanadium-containing converter slags obtained from melting of titanium magnetite ores are the raw material for vanadium pentoxide. New technology for manufacture of pure vanadium pentoxide using such slags was developed. Oxidizing roasting of slags at T = 850 ºС without Ca and Na-containing additives in used in this technology contrary to the existing technologies. Vanadium is leached selectively from roasted product with Na2CO3 (120–150 g/dm3) water solutions giving 99,6–99,8% V2O5.
Sulfurous leaching of vanadium from the cakes allows to obtain manganese salts and solid residuals are used for manufacture of complex master alloys for ferrous industry.
Keywords: hydrometallurgy, converter slag, selective leaching, vanadium, manganese, complex raw material processing.

Phase composition of products aluminothermic smelting Al-V-Ti-C master alloy
S. Vohmentsev, V. Chumarev, A. Larionov, S. Zhidovinov, D. Taranov
The results of the study of the phase composition of the Al-V-Ti-C master alloy and slags formed during its aluminothermic smelting are presented. The study carried out by X-ray phase and X-ray microanalysis. As part of Al-V-Ti-C master alloy found aluminides V5Al8, VAl3, carbide phase based on V2C, as well as a small amount of elemental carbon. Main component of Al-V-Ti-C slag is alumina (Al2O3), in which as separate inclusions found calcium aluminates of different composition, elemental carbon, carbide and a metal phases.
Keywords: master alloy, slag, phase composition, aluminum, vanadium, titanium, carbon.

Viscosity of slags of alumino-thermal production of ligatures for titanium alloys
V. Chumarev, S. Istomin, V. Ryabov, A. Larionov, D. Taranov, S. Vohmentsev, М. Trubachev
The viscosity of slags formed in the aluminothermic smelting of Al-V-Ti-C, Al-Cr-Mo-Si and Al-Zr-Mo-Sn master alloys was measured using vibrational viscosimetry. The viscosity of slags in the fluid-poor state is less than 5-6 P. In the coordinates lnη-1/T, the slag viscosity polythemes of Al-V-Ti-C and Al-Cr-Mo-Si are described by intersecting lines. On the location of the points of intersection, the liquidus temperatures of slag Al-V-Ti-C ‒ 1860°С and Al-Cr-Mo-Si ‒ 1790°С were estimated. The temperature of the beginning of crystallization of the slag of Al-Zr-Mo-Sn is below ‒ 1550°C. The temperature coefficient of viscosity of Al-Cr-Mo-Si slag is determined equal to 103.0 kJ/mol, for Al-Zr-Mo-Sn slag ‒ 37.0 kJ/mol.
Keywords: aluminothermy, slag, viscosity, temperature dependence, crystallization.

Certification of the alternative source of zirconium for titanium production
M. Leder, I. Puzakov, N. Tarenkova, M. Kornilova, A. Gorina
VMSPO-AVISMA Corporation has certified the alternative source of Zr for Ti production – ATI Wah Chang (USA), Zr sponge producer.
The work presents the results of integrated research of Zr sponge and the results of simulating the defects caused by oxidized and nitrided particles of Zr sponge with defect formation risk assessment. It demonstrates that the use of Zr sponge allows to obtain Ti products of the required quality. Defect formation risk with Zr sponge was rated as low.
Keywords: Zr sponge, certification, oxidation, nitriding, risk assessment.

Materials science
Effect of additional alloying with neutral strengthening elements on structure and properties of (a+b) titanium alloy
S. Skvortsova, A. Shalin, O. Gvozdeva, N. Ruchina, A. Volodin
In this work the effect of additional alloying with neutral strengthening elements on technological plasticity at hot and cold deformation, structure and mechanical properties in VT16 titanium alloy with the base composition is studied. It is shown that the introduction of about 1 wt.% of Zr and Sn has no significant effect on deformability of the alloy at elevated temperatures and does not lead to any substantial change of structure in hot-deformed and annealed states. However these elements decrease ultimate degree of compression strain by 10–15% at room temperature. At the same time ultimate strength increases at the average by 60 MPa.
Keywords: titanium alloy, technological plasticity, alloying, solid solution strengthening, structure, strength.

Peculiarities of phase formation at metallothermic obtaining titanium-aluminium alloys
S. Krasikov, S. Agafonov, E. Zhilina, L. Vedmid, S. Zhidovinova, A. Dolmatov, T. Osinkina, A. Russkih
Succession of intermetallic compounds formation is studied by interaction of aluminum with titanium oxides, niobium and tantalum and resulted in approbation of metallothermic production of TiAl-based alloys using laboratory electric furnaces.
Keywords: aluminothermic reduction, phase formation, titanium alloys, intermetallic compounds, oxides.

Semi-products manufacturing technologies
Application of titanium sponge alloyed with aluminum and vanadium
T. Yanko, A. Ovchinnikov
The main directions of application of titanium sponge alloyed with aluminum and vanadium are considered. The advantages of using an alloyed sponge for the production of both alloys and finished products by reducing the production cycle are shown. The technology for producing titanium alloy powders for powder metallurgy and additive technologies of the hydride-dehydride (HDH) process has been presented.
Keywords: titanium alloys, powders, alloying, technology, properties, structure, sponge.

Titanium market
The concept of life-cycle application for the production technologies in determining advanced areas of titanium alloys research
Yu. Kusakina, L. Fedorova
The paper observes the influence of the life cycle of technologies on the areas of applied research related to the development of new titanium alloys and processing technologies. It is concluded that at the moment these technologies are at the stage of maturity, and for this stage of the life cycle of technology the most promising are those areas of research which are connected with cost reduction in production and processing.
Keywords: titanium alloys, life cycle of technologies, scientific research.

Events and anniversaries
To the 80-year anniversary Igor Polkin
To the 80-year anniversary Boris Prudkovskiy
To the 80-year anniversary German Kolobov
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